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Characteristics, History, and Health


The Pomeranian is a breed of dog that comes from the region of Pomerania, which is now in modern-day Poland and Germany. They are a part of the Spitz family, a type of dog with distinct features such as dense coats, small ears, and pointed muzzles that are known for their abilities in cold weather. The Pomeranian's ancestors were much larger sled-pulling dogs used in the Arctic regions. The breed as we know it today was largely developed in Britain during the 19th century. Queen Victoria of England owned a particularly small Pomeranian, which led to a trend of breeding smaller Pomeranians. The breed's popularity has remained stable since then, and they are one of the more common toy breeds.

Main Info
Alternate Names
Pom, Pom Pom, Zwergspitz, Dwarf-Spitz, Deutscher Spitz
Life Expectancy
12-16 years
Average Male Height
6-7 inches
Average Female Height
6-7 inches
Average Male Weight
3-7 pounds
Average Female Weight
3-7 pounds
Coat Length
Coat Type
Coat Colors
Blue Merle, Blue Brindle, Chocolate Merle, Blue Sable, Black, Black & Tan, Black, Blue, Blue & Tan, Chocolate, Chocolate & Tan, Cream, Cream Sable, Orange, Orange Sable, Red, Red Sable, Beaver, Brindle, White, Wolf Sable, Chocolate Sable, Tri-Colored, Black & Brindle
Coat Pattern
Parti-Color, Mask, White Markings, Tan Markings, Brindle, Irish Marked, Tri-Color Markings, Sable, Merle Markings

Genetic Predispositions and Health

Pomeranians can suffer from eye conditions, including vitreous degeneration, cataracts, distichiasis, entropion, progressive retinal atrophy (prcd), progressive retinal atrophy (rcd3), and persistent pupillary membranes. They can also be affected by many other health issues, including adrenal sex hormone imbalance, albinism (oculocutaneous), alopecia X (black skin disease), atlantoaxial instability, cryptorchidism, cyclic hematopoiesis, deafness, demodicosis, eclampsia, elbow dysplasia (ununited anconeal process), degenerative myelopathy, gallbladder mucocele, globoid cell leukodystrophy, growth hormone-responsive dermatosis, hydrocephalus, hyperuricosuria, hypoadrenocorticism, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease, meningoencephalitis (necrotizing), methemoglobin reductase deficiency, heart conditions including mitral valve disease, oligodontia, panniculitis, patellar luxation, patent ductus arteriosus, portosystemic shunts, prognathism, rickets, sebaceous adenitis, seizures, stomatocytosis, tracheal collapse, urolithiasis (calcium oxalate), and von Willebrand Disease (Type I).

Personality and Behavior

Pomeranians are known for their lively and playful nature. They're intelligent, curious, and love to be the center of attention. Despite their small size, they are fearless and can sometimes be aggressive with other dogs. They tend to be loyal to their families and can be somewhat wary of strangers, which makes them good watchdogs. Training and socialization from a young age are important to help them become well-rounded dogs.

Fun Facts

They're sometimes referred to as "Poms" or "Pom Poms."

Mozart and Queen Victoria both had Pomeranians.

The smallest dog on the Titanic was a Pomeranian that survived the sinking.

Pomeranians are often good at learning tricks and can do well in dog sports like agility and obedience.